For some crazy reason I decided a while ago that I wanted to learn Japanese. Essentially, I wanted to learn a language as unlike English as I could find. So I did some summer intensive thing before college (that amounted to a year of class) and then continued taking class for all three years of undergrad. At the end, I could get by passably for most conversation topics (business, politics, current events, etc.) other than research stuff (at some point I learned how to say NLP, but I don't remember anymore...I wonder if en-eru-pi would be understood...). During the whole time we were required to meet weekly with conversation partners so as to practice our speaking skills.
For the first "semester" during the summer, I had a male professor. For all remaining seven semesters, my profs were female. With the exception of one conversation partner (who was from Hokkaido and spoke quicky with a strong accent and who was quickly replaced by someone who I could understand a bit more), all of my conversation partners were female.
At the end of my four years, I was speaking to a frien (who was neither a conversation partner nor a prof) in Japanese and after about three turns of conversation, he says to me (roughly): "you talk like a girl."
Based on the set up of this post, you may have seen that coming. But the thing that is most interesting is that Japanese is not one of those languages where the speaker's gender is encoded in (eg.) verb morphology. In fact, as best I could tell at that point, the only thing that I did that was effeminate was to use too many sentence ending particles that were more commonly used by women (-ka-na, I think, was one, but it's been too long now to really remember). The guy who said this to me was a close enough friend that I tried to figure out what it was about my speech that made him assess that I talk like a girl. The sentence particle thing was part of it, but he said that there was also something else that he couldn't really figure out; he was hypothesizing it was something to do with emphasis patterns.
It's not at all surprising that given that the majority of native speakers that I talked to were female, that if there were some underlying bias that was sufficiently subtle that the profs weren't able to intentially avoid it, that I would have picked it up.
Now, getting back to en-eru-pi. There's been a reasonable amount of work in the past few years on identifying the gender of the authors of texts. I know both Moshe Koppel and Shlomo Argamon, to name two, have worked on this problem. I also remember seeing a web site a year or so ago where you could enter a few sentences that you wrote and it would guess your gender. I don't remember what it cued off of---i think distribution of types of verbs and adjectives, mostly, but I do remember that given a short paragraph, it's shockingly accurate.
What I don't know is (a) if anyone has done this for something other than English and (b) if someone has done it for speech. Of course, if you have speech, you have extra information (eg., pitch) which might be useful. But given my Japanese friend's reaction to my speech pattern (my voice is rather low), there has to be more going on. And I'm not convinced that what is going on will be the same between written text and (say) transcribed speech. If someone wanted to try such an experiment for non-English text, you could probably just mine non-English from some social networking site (like myspace or facebook), where people tend to list their genders. I'm not sure how to do it for speech. Maybe there's some speech transcription corpus out there that's annotated with gender, but I don't know what it is. Although I don't see a huge financial marked out there for an answer, I'm personally curious what it is about my English writing patterns that made the web site I refered to earlier strongly convinced that I'm male, and what it is about my Japanese speech patterns that make it clear that I'm not.