07 November 2009

NLP as a study of representations

Ellen Riloff and I run an NLP reading group pretty much every semester. Last semester we covered "old school NLP." We independently came up with lists of what we consider some of the most important ideas (idea = paper) from pre-1990 (most are much earlier) and let students select which to present. There was a lot of overlap between Ellen's list and mine (not surprisingly). If people are interested, I can provide the whole list (just post a comment and I'll dig it up). The whole list of topics is posted as a comment. The topics that were actually selected are here.

I hope the students have found this exercise useful. It gets you thinking about language in a way that papers from the 2000s typically do not. It brings up a bunch of issues that we no longer think about frequently. Like language. (Joking.) (Sort of.)

One thing that's really stuck out for me is how much "old school" NLP comes across essentially as a study of representations. Perhaps this is a result of the fact that AI -- as a field -- was (and, to some degree, still is) enamored with knowledge representation problems. To be more concrete, let's look at a few examples. It's already been a while since I read these last (I had meant to write this post during the spring when things were fresh in my head), so please forgive me if I goof a few things up.

I'll start with one I know well: Mann and Thompson's rhetorical structure theory paper from 1988. This is basically "the" RST paper. I think that when a many people think of RST, they think of it as a list of ways that sentences can be organized into hierarchies. Eg., this sentence provides background for that one, and together they argue in favor of yet a third. But this isn't really where RST begins. It begins by trying to understand the communicative role of text structure. That is, when I write, I am trying to communicate something. Everything that I write (if I'm writing "well") is toward that end. For instance, in this post, I'm trying to communicate that old school NLP views representation as the heart of the issue. This current paragraph is supporting that claim by providing a concrete example, which I am using to try to convince you of my claim.

As a more detailed example, take the "Evidence" relation from RST. M+T have the following characterization of "Evidence." Herein, "N" is the nucleus of the relation, "S" is the satellite (think of these as sentences), "R" is the reader and "W" is the writer:

relation name: Evidence
constraints on N: R might not believe N to a degree satisfactory to W
constraints on S: R believes S or will find it credible
constraints on N+S: R's comprehending S increases R's belief of N
the effect: R's belief of N is increased
locus of effect: N
This is a totally different way from thinking about things than I think we see nowadays. I kind of liken it to how I tell students not to program. If you're implementing something moderately complex (say, forward/backward algorithm), first write down all the math, then start implementing. Don't start implementing first. I think nowadays (and sure, I'm guilty!) we see a lot of implementing without the math. Or rather, with plenty of math, but without a representational model of what it is that we're studying.

The central claim of the RST paper is that one can think of texts as being organized into elementary discourse units, and these are connected into a tree structure by relations like the one above. (Or at least this is my reading of it.) That is, they have laid out a representation of text and claimed that this is how texts get put together.

As a second example (this will be sorter), take Wendy Lehnert's 1982 paper, "Plot units and narrative summarization." Here, the story is about how stories get put together. The most interesting thing about the plot units model to me is that it breaks from how one might naturally think about stories. That is, I would naively think of a story as a series of events. The claim that Lehnert makes is that this is not the right way to think about it. Rather, we should think about stories as sequences of affect states. Effectively, an affect state is how a character is feeling at any time. (This isn't quite right, but it's close enough.) For example, Lehnert presents the following story:
When John tried to start his care this morning, it wouldn't turn over. He asked his neighbor Paul for help. Paul did something to the carburetor and got it going. John thanked Paul and drove to work.
The representation put forward for this story is something like: (1) negative-for-John (the car won't start), which leads to (2) motivation-for-John (to get it started, which leads to (3) positive-for-John (it's started), when then links back and resolves (1). You can also analyze the story from Paul's perspective, and then add links that go between the two characters showing how things interact. The rest of the paper describes how these relations work, and how they can be put together into more complex event sequences (such as "promised request bungled"). Again, a high level representation of how stories work from the perspective of the characters.

So now I, W, hope that you, R, have an increased belief in the title of the post.

Why do I think this is interesting? Because at this point, we know a lot about how to deal with structure in language. From a machine learning perspective, if you give me a structure and some data (and some features!), I will learn something. It can even be unsupervised if it makes you feel better. So in a sense, I think we're getting to a point where we can go back, look at some really hard problems, use the deep linguistic insights from two decades (or more) ago, and start taking a crack at things that are really deep. Of course, features are a big problem; as a very wise man once said to me: "Language is hard. The fact that statistical association mining at the word level made it appear easy for the past decade doesn't alter the basic truth. :-)." We've got many of the ingredients to start making progress, but it's not going to be easy!

61 comments:

Peter Turney said...

I agree. In a recent paper, I took some old-school AI from 1989 (The Structure Mapping Engine) and updated it with an unsupervised learning corpus-based feature-vector approach (The Latent Relation Mapping Engine). I think we're going to see a lot of work of this type in the coming decade.

Ryan Shaw said...

I'd be interested in seeing your full list of topics.

Kevin Duh said...

This is interesting. Thanks for the post, Hal! I would love to go back and draw inspirations from the old classics. But the question for me is: "Where do I start?" I can barely keep up with all the recent proceedings. If there is a system like WhatToSee that can suggest older papers using current papers as "queries", that might be interesting! We might need some way to map new vocabularies to old ones, like Wang/McCallum's dynamic topic model evolving through time.

Dalamar Taurog said...

I would be interested in seeing the whole list of topics as well!

hal said...

Here's the full list...



[Bahl et al., 1983] L.R. Bahl, F. Jelinek and R.L. Mercer. "A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Continuous Speech Recognition." IEEE Journal of Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.



[Charniak, 1983] Eugene Charniak. Passing Markers: A Theory of Contextual Influence in Language Comprehension, Cognitive Science, 7, pp. 171-190.



[Charniak, 1973] Jack and Janet in Search of a Theory of Knowledge. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (1973) + [Charniak, 1977] Eugene Charniak. Ms. Malaprop, A Language Comprehension Program. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (1977). (Each is short so let's cover both papers.)



[Cohen et al. 1982] Philip R. Cohen, C. Raymond Perrault, and James F. Allen. Beyond Question Answering. Strategies for Natural Language Processing, pp. 245- 274.



[Grosz, Joshi, and Weinstein, 1995]. Centering: A Framework for Modeling the Local Coherence of Discourse. Computational Linguistics, 21 (2), pp. 203-226.



[Grosz and Sidner, 1986]. Attention, Intention, and the Structure of Discourse. Computational Linguistics, 12 (3), pp. 175-204, 1986.


[Hobbs et al., 1993]. Interpretation as Abduction. Artificial Intelligence, vol 63. pp. 69-142.



[Hobbs, 1979] Jerry Hobbs. Coherence and Coreference, Cognitive Science 3(1), pp. 67-90.



[Hovy, 1988] Hovy, E.H. 1988. Planning Coherent Multisentential Text. Proceedings of 26th ACL Conference. Buffalo, NY.



[Karttunen, 1969] Lauri Karttunen. 1969. Pronouns and variables. In CLS 5: Proceedings of the Fifth Regional Meeting, pages 108-116, Chicago, Illinois. Chicago Linguistic Society.



[Kay, 1986] Martin Kay. Parsing in functional unification grammar.



[Lakoff & Johnson, 1980] George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By, Chapters 1-4. (short - a total of 21 pages).



[Lehnert, 1981] Wendy G. Lehnert. Plot units and narrative summarization. Cognitive Science, Volume 5, Issue 4, October-December 1981, Pages 293-331



[Lehnert, 1977] Wendy Lehnert. Human and Computational Question Answering. Cognitive Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 47-73.



[Mann and Thompson, 1988]. Rhetorical Structure Theory: Toward a functional theory of text organization. Text 8 (3), pp. 243-281, 1988.



[Martin et al., 1986] P. Martin, D. Appelt and F. Pereira. Transportability and generality in a natural-language interface system.



[McKeown 1986] Kathleen McKeown. Discourse strategies for generating natural-language text.



[Rosch and Mervis, 1975] Eleanor Rosch and Carolyn B. Mervis. Family Resemblances: Studies in the Internal Structure of Categories, Cognitive Psychology, 7, 573-605.



[Schank, 1986] Roger Schank. Language and memory.



[Schubert and Pelletier, 1986] L Schubert and F J Pelletier. From English to logic: context-free computation of "conventional" logical translations.



[Wilks, 1975] Yorick Wilks. An Intelligent Analyzer and Understander of English, CACM 1975.



[Woods, 1986] W.A. Woods. Semantics and quantification in natural language question answering.

Anonymous said...

another self-serving comment by Mr web 2.0
Peter Turney. isn't a blog enough already ?

123 123 said...

Interesting post as for me. It would be great to read something more about that matter.
BTW look at the design I've made myself High class escort

goodeda1122 said...

自慰套,真愛密碼,
自慰套,自慰器,自慰套,情趣,充氣娃娃,
性感丁字褲,AV,按摩棒,電動按摩棒,情趣按摩棒,
角色扮演,角色扮演服,吊帶襪,丁字褲,飛機杯,

按摩棒,變頻跳蛋,跳蛋,無線跳蛋,G點,
潤滑液,SM,情趣內衣,內衣,性感內衣,情趣用品,情趣,

thomson said...

Potty training tips, baby potty training. Resource guide on how to potty train, potty training for boys and girls.train potty

thomson said...

Organic weed control and lawn weed control guides and tips. Include gardening basic information and soil and composting resources.lawn weed control

rr8004 said...

You do have a point here :) I admire the stuff you post and the quality information you offer in your blog! Keep up the good work dude. Please come visit my site Fresno Business Services And Classifieds when you got time.

rr8004 said...

You do have a point here :) I admire the stuff you post and the quality information you offer in your blog! Keep up the good work dude. Please come visit my site California CA Phone Directory when you got time.

Ciro Castro said...

Good Morning, I didn't find a different way to write you. NLP has recently bitten me, and I don't know how to start to learn about it. Where do I get information for beginners? what should I learn first of all the things?. Are there some books o web sites? I'd appreciate your help.

Thanks
Ciro Castro
(ciadcara@gmail.com)

Ted said...

I frequently start students who are new to NLP with the following:

Turing, A.M. (1950). Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind, 59, 433-460.

Weizenbaum, Joseph (January 1966), "ELIZA - A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine", Communications of the ACM 9 (1): 36–45,

For as famous as it is, the Turing paper seems to often be un-read, and it has a lot of wrinkles that go beyond the popular understanding of the Turing Test (for example, clairvoyance is discussed in a serious way :)

The Eliza paper is interesting on many levels having to do with dialogue processing and our expectations of conversations (based on who we are talking with), but I also like to use it as an early example of published source code leading to many many reasonably accurate re-implementations.

Anyway, I have found these papers are often pretty motivating for students who may not have thought much about NLP. In the past I've started with more technical fare (POS tagging, word sense disambiguation and the like) but sometimes that just doesn't really fire up someone new-ish in the area.

With students interested in word sense disambiguation or related topics, I sometimes refer them to Karen Spark-Jones' book "Synonymy and Semantic Classification", published in 1986 but really written in about 1964 as her PhD dissertation.

You can see a review of this book (which includes publication details) here.

The Spark-Jones work strikes me as remarkable given that it takes on issues like clustering and finding semantic relations in an era of teeny-tiny punched card computers - there's something both humbling and motivating about that.

In any case, bravo for taking the longer view!

Cordially,
Ted

Robin said...

As a researcher in Natural Language Processing I have found this blog informative.

Regards
Robin

Peter Kaminsky said...

@Peter, i also went through that Falkenhainer-Forbus-Gentner paper. I would be interested in seeing the full paper of your Latent Relation Mapping Engine paper. I am a college sophomore with a dual major in Physics and Mathematics @ University of California, Santa Barbara. By the way, i came across these excellent flash cards. Its also a great initiative by the FunnelBrain team. Amazing!!!

rr8004 said...

Very nice information. Thanks for this. Please come visit my site Louisville Yellow Page Business Directory when you got time.

rr8004 said...

Very nice information. Thanks for this. Please come visit my site Phone Directory Of Louisville City Kentuchy KY State when you got time.

Godar said...

There was this guy who believed very much in true love and decided to take his time to wait for his right girl to appear.
nike shox nz shoes
cheap nike shox nz shoes
nike shoxs
Chaussures puma
wholesale nike shox nz shoes
cheap ugg boots
nike womens shoes
hommes nike chaussures
femmes nike
mens puma shoes
hommes puma chaussures
femmes puma chaussures
Nike Air Max 360 chaussures
Nike Air Max 90 Chaussures
Nike Air Max 95 Chaussures
Nike Air Max Ltd Chaussures
nike shox
Nike Max Tn Chaussures
nike 360 air max
nike running shoes
NIKE air shoes
nike shox nz shoes online store
nike air max
Nike Air TN Spider Chaussures
Nike Max Plata Chaussures
Nike R4 Plating Chaussures
Nike Shox Rival Velcro
Nike Shox Deliver Chaussures
Nike Shox Classic Chaussures
Nike NZ Plating Chaussures
wholesale nike shoes
nike shox torch
sneakers shoes
Nike Tn
discount nike shoes
nike shox r4
tn dollar
cheap nike shoes
nike tennis shoes
cheap nike shox
free shipping shoes
Paypal Credit card Accept
nike shoes
nike discount shoes
cheap puma shoes
nike shox shoes
chaussures nike
nike free shoes
buy shoes online
You may painfully regret, only to realise that it is too late.

gavin said...

yeah, very good!
Just statistic is crazy for nlp.

gamefan12 said...

This is so good that you are letting the students get more involved. I am so glad to see this.
buffalo mesothelioma lawyer

rui said...

nike air max 90
nike air max 95
nike shoes
nike air
nike air shoes
nike air max tn
nike air rift
nike shox r4
sports shoes
nike air rifts
nike air rift trainer
nike air max 360
nike shox nz
puma cat
air max trainers
mens nike air max
nike air
puma mens shoes
puma shoes
puma speed
nike shoes air max
nike shoes shox
air shoes
Lucyliu IS Lucyliu
nike shoe cart
puma future
levis jeans
nike rift shoes
cheap nike air rifts
bape shoes
cheap puma
nike rift
jeans shop
diesel jeans

nike said...

cheap nike shox
cheap sport shoes
nike tn dollar
ed hardy ugg boots
ed hardy love kills slowly
ed hardy clothing us
ed hardy clothing
cheap ed hardy
cheap ed hardy clothing
ed hardy clothes
ed hardy wholesale
ed hardy clothing
ed hardy t shirts
ed hardy shirts
ed hardy uk
ed hardy t shirts
ed hardy shirts
ed hardy hoodies
Cheap JORDAN SHOES,,
cheap nike max ,。
puma future cat
ed hardy ugg boots.
ed hardy love kills slowly boots.
ed hardy love kills slowly.
ed hardy polo shirts.
cheap ed hardy clothing,.
ed hardy shirts .
ed hardy t shirts.,.

qishaya said...

one day i went shopping outside,and in an ed hardy store,I found some kinds of ed hardy i love most they are Your website is really good Thank you for the information ed hardy ed hardy ed hardy clothing ed hardy clothing ed hardy shoes ed hardy shoes don ed hardy don ed hardy ed hardy clothes ed hardy clothes ed hardy bags ed hardy bags ed hardy swimwear ed hardy swimwear ed hardy jeans ed hardy jeans ed hardy mens ed hardy mens Thank you for the information

ai said...

ugg boots
polo boots
polo shoes

herve leger
herve leger bandage dress

chanel outlet
chanel bandbags
chanel bags
chanel iman

ralph Lauren polo
ralph lauren outlet
lacoste polo
polo raplh lauren

air jordan 2010
cheap jordan shoes
jordan ajf shoes
discount jordan shoes
jumpman23

moncler
moncler jackets
moncler coats
moncler vest
moncler outlet
moncler Polo t shirt
cheap five finger shoes

kiss ghd

aai333 said...

Nice article written by you
Nicediscount nike dunk
articlecheap nike shoes
writtennike dunk outlet
byChristian Louboutin shoes
youChloe outlet
cheap Chloe bags
discount Chloe bags
newest Chloe shoes
Chloe bags 2010
Chloe totes
bape shoes outlet
bape clothing
discount bape shoes
cheap bape shoes
bape jackets
wholesale ed hardy
ed hardy wholesale
discount ed hardy
MBT boots
MBT shoes in fashion
cheap mbt shoes sale
discount mbt outlet 2010
MBT Walking Shoes
Purple GHD
Moncler
Moncler jackets
Moncler coats
Moncler Vest
Moncler outlet
discount moncler Tshirt
air jordan 2010
cheap jordan shoes
discount jordan shoes
jump man 23
cheap ugg boots
discount ugg boots
ugg boots
discount nike shoes

liuyu7521 said...

AirMax BW
AirMax Huarache
AirMax LTD
AirMax Skyline
AirMax TN
AirMax Zength
AirMax 09 Sneakers
AirMax 180
AirMax 2003
AirMax 2006
AirMax 2009
AirMax 2010
AirMax 360
AirMax 87
AirMax 90
AirMax 91
AirMax 92
AirMax 93
AirMax 95
cheap ugg boots
discount ugg boots
ugg boots
classic ugg boots
ugg classic tall boots

fangfang said...

MBT will not only change,MBT boots,the way you use your MTB Shoes,What are the benefits?christian dior,Free shipping and free return shippingdior shoes,on all diorIncluded with each pair ofdior handbags,an instructional DVDWhat is Dior?dior sunglasses,look at another good paoduct such as Dior totesDo not worryThe urge to buy these goodsnew balancerevolutionary fitness aid from Swiss Masai,new balance shoes,which may help reduce cellulite andnew balance outlet,transforms flat hard artificial surfaces Puma Shoes, with top quality and cheap price. puma outlet,innovative sole design includes thePuma Sneaker,Here you can buy wide rangewholesale cl high heel sandalsquality and cheap car GPS navigation systemsMoncler,Very Cool, Comfortable and lightmoncler jacketsoriginal packing you can rest assured.moncler coatsYou might say that thediscount moncler vestNo one ever thought bothmoncler outlet,As with everything that comes fmonmoncler t-shirtThe new store has been decorated.north faceWe are offering you a wide range ofnorth face outletSome color combinations seem to getnorthfaceBut within the same community north face jacketsbecause it features just the right amount of north face coats,A little of these are given below.ugg bootswas a very well-known French fashionable boot,cheap ugg bootsbecause of the wisdom featuresdiscount ugg bootswhich you are buying is uniqueclassic ugg bootsthey obtain materials from domestic suppliers ugg classic tall boots,A stroll around the park with the GHD IV Salon Styler,We are offering you coach outlet,our store has been decorated coach handbags,Nicecoach totes

daiyanren said...

There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 6
jordan 7
Good quality with low price.
air jordan 2010
Air Jordan 2009
You can have a look at it.
jordan shoes
jordan ajf shoes
We offer different styles.
jordan 1
jordan 2
If you like,you can contact us.
jordan 3
jordan 4
Thanks.
jordan 5
jumpman

mili8951 said...

stylish design
Ed Hardy Wholesale
fashion excellent quality
wholesale Ed Hardy
ED Hardy clothing bring you a super surprise!
ed hardy wholesale clothing

aiai said...

Online shoe shopping has never been so easy.A one-stop destination for all your footwear needs!Nike Shox R4,Shox shoes,shox nz,ugg boots or new spyder,you name it and we have it.We are not only the premier shopping destination for spyder jacketsonline but also for people of all age-groups and for all brands. Buy online without leaving the comfort of your home. Whatever your needs: from clothing and accessories to all brands (cheap ugg boots,discount ugg boots,ugg boots,cheap ugg boots,discount ugg boots,Rare ghd,MBT boots,MBT shoes in fashion,cheap mbt shoes sale,discount mbt outlet 2010,MBT Walking Shoes)of shoes and sports gear,we has it all for you.

aiai said...

Everyone has unique requirements in terms of brands,personal specifications and choices.Whether you want to clothing online,new moncler,moncler jackets,moncler coats,moncler outlet,moncler vest,moncler polot-shirt,spyder outlet,spyder polot-shirt,spyder vest,spyder coats,cheap ed hardy wholesale,ed hardy wholesale,discount ed hardy wholesale,wholesale ed hardy,ed hardy outletyou can just take your pick, put it in the shopping cart and make your payment.FromSexy Lingerie Store,Intimate Apparel,Sexy Halloween Costumes,Sexy Underwear,cheap vibram 5 fingers, discount vibram five fingers,Vibram running shoes,vibram five fingers shoes,vibram five finger outlet ,you get them all here. The real benefit is in the discount prices.

faithe55 said...

Everyone has unique requirements in terms of brands,personal specifications and choices.Whether you

want to clothing online,new moncler,moncler jackets,moncler coats,moncler outlet,moncler vest,moncler polot-shirt,spyder outlet,spyder polot-shirt,spyder vest,spyder

coats
,cheap ed hardy

wholesale
,ed hardy wholesale,discount ed hardy wholesale,wholesale ed hardy,ed hardy outletyou can just take your pick, put it

in the shopping cart and make your payment.FromSexy

Lingerie Store
,Intimate Apparel,Sexy Halloween Costumes,Sexy Underwear,cheap vibram 5 fingers, discount vibram five fingers,Vibram running shoes,vibram five fingers shoes,vibram five finger outlet ,you get them all here.

The real benefit is in the discount prices.

faithe55 said...

Online shoe shopping has never been so easy.A one-stop destination for all your footwear needs!

Nike Shox R4,Shox shoes,shox

nz
,ugg boots or new spyder,you name it and we have it.We are not only the

premier shopping destination for spyder

jackets
online but also for people of all age-groups and for all brands. Buy online without

leaving the comfort of your home. Whatever your needs: from clothing and accessories to all brands

(cheap ugg boots,discount ugg boots,ugg

boots
,cheap ugg boots,discount ugg boots,Rare ghd,MBT boots,MBT shoes in fashion,cheap mbt shoes sale,discount mbt outlet 2010,MBT Walking Shoes)of shoes and sports gear,we has

it all for you.

mili8951 said...

stylish design
Ed Hardy Wholesale
fashion excellent quality
wholesale Ed Hardy
ED Hardy clothing bring you a super surprise!
ed hardy wholesale clothing
I can't believe it.
abercrombie outlet
You can have a look at it.
abercrombie fitch outlet
Wonderful!
coats & jackets
If one knows where to, the world will give way.
north face
World-class brands
moncler
The top fabric produced in France is 100%
duvetica
Italy's top outdoor brands
peuterey
sisley
Good quality and function, more accord with fashionable design
woolrich
High-grade, innovation, the trend of the brand
refrigiwear
The quality is so good
barbour jackets
north sails
Young and creative style
diesel jacket

tina said...

Gucci
Replica GUCCI SHOES
Replica GUCCI handbags
wholesale gucci shoes
cheap Gucci shoes
cheap Gucci handbags
discount gucci shoes
Gucci shop
Gucci bags
Gucci shoes
Gucci ON sale
Gucci Belts
Gucci small accessories
Gucci hats & scarves
Gucci wallets
Gucci Handbags
women Gucci shoes
Men Gucci shoes
Gucci
Replica GUCCI SHOES
Replica GUCCI handbags
wholesale gucci shoes
cheap Gucci shoes
cheap Gucci handbags
discount gucci shoes
Gucci shop
Gucci bags
Gucci shoes
Gucci ON sale
Gucci Belts
Gucci small accessories
Gucci hats & scarves
Gucci wallets
Gucci Handbags
women Gucci shoes
Men Gucci shoes

janewangleilei said...

You can have a look at it.
jordan shoes
jordan ajf shoes
There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 6
jordan 7
Good quality with low price.
air jordan 2010
Air Jordan 2009
If you like,you can contact us.
jordan 3
jordan 4
We offer different styles.
jordan 1
jordan 2
Thanks.
jordan 5
jumpman
I can't believe it.
nike outlet
You can have a look at it.
adidas outlet
puma outlet
north face
moncler
Wow
ak jackets
spyder jackets
Beautiful!
Columbia Sportswear
quiksilver jackets
Enjoy it.
burton jacket
powder room jackets
Thanks.
karbon jacket
goldwin jackets
I can't believe it.
eider jackets
You can have a look at it.
sportalm jackets
Wonderful!
west scout
stylish design
Ed Hardy Wholesale
fashion excellent quality
wholesale Ed Hardy
ED Hardy clothing bring you a super surprise!
ed hardy wholesale clothing
I can't believe it.
abercrombie outlet
You can have a look at it.
abercrombie fitch outlet
Wonderful!
coats & jackets

Ann said...

Fashion trends change on daily basis, like Gold GHD. Now Burberry Sunglasses.Our ED Hardy Sunglasses will definitely satisfy your taste. ED Hardy T-shirt chain makes people enjoy the cheap ED Hardy Clothing range easily our ED Hardy Outlet. As we all know, in fact discount ED Hardy, is based. The reason is simple: fashion prohibited by polo boots, in other words, we can say it as polo shoes. Would you like to wear cheap ugg boots? Now welcome to our paul smith outlet. And these are different products, like Puma Shoes (or you can say Puma Sneaker, and you can buy them from our puma outlet), GHD, ED Hardy, UGG, Paul Smith and brand Sunglasses. For those who desire for a ugg boots but have to refrain themselves from buying one ugg boots, there are some company that offer discount ugg boots.

seldamuratim said...

Really trustworthy blog. Please keep updating with great posts like this one. I have booked marked your site and am about to email it to a few friends of mine that I know would enjoy reading..
sesli sohbetsesli chatkamerali sohbetseslisohbetsesli sohbet sitelerisesli chat siteleriseslichatsesli sohpetseslisohbet.comsesli chatsesli sohbetkamerali sohbetsesli chatsesli sohbetkamerali sohbet
seslisohbetsesli sohbetkamerali sohbetsesli chatsesli sohbetkamerali sohbet

janewangleilei said...

You can have a look at it.
jordan shoes
jordan ajf shoes
There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 6
jordan flight 45
Good quality with low price.
air jordan 2010
Air Jordan 2009
Enjoy it!
jumpman
jordan 28
Wow.
newest jordans
Wonderful!
air yeezy
jordan true flight
I can't believe it.
nike outlet
adidas outlet
puma outlet

janewangleilei said...

You can have a look at it.
jordan shoes
Wow.
newest jordans
jordan 7
Wonderful!
air yeezy
jordan true flight
If you like,you can contact us.
jordan 3
jordan 4
We offer different styles.
jordan 1
jordan 2
Thanks.
jordan 5
jordan ajf shoes
There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 6
jordan flight 45
Good quality with low price.
air jordan 2010
Air Jordan 2009
Enjoy it!
jumpman
jordan 28

mili8951 said...

NewStreetFashion
Ed Hardy
stylish design
Ed Hardy Wholesale
fashion excellent quality
wholesale Ed Hardy
ED Hardy clothing bring you a super surprise!
ed hardy wholesale clothing
The quality is so good
christian audigier
Young and creative style
abercrombie and fitch
You can have a look at it.
abercrombie & fitch
jordan 8
jordan 9
jordan 10

coatjack said...

coats & jackets
If one knows where to, the world will give way.
north face jackets
moncler
World-class brands
moncler jackets
The top fabric produced in France is 100%
duvetica
Italy's top outdoor brands
peuterey
Good quality and function, more accord with fashionable design
spyder jackets
High-grade, innovation, the trend of the brand
Columbia Sportswear
The quality is so good
quiksilver jackets
Young and creative style
ski jacket

kAriZmA - Www.HitSeSLi.Com said...

kAriZmA > HitSesLi.Com
Ortak Kültürlerin Buluşma Noktasi >
Görünütülü Sohbet Yarişma Eğlence Canlı Müzik Kızlar Para Kazan Hersey Burada Sen Nerdesin
Really trustworthy blog. Please keep updating with great posts like this one. I have booked marked your site and am about to email it to a few friends of mine that I know would enjoy reading..
sesli sohbetsesli chat
sesli sohbet siteleri

sesli chat siteleri sesli sohbetsesli chat
sesli sohbet siteleri
sesli chat siteleri
SesliChat
cılgın sohbet
güzel kızlar
bekar kızlar
dul bayanlar
seviyeli insanlar
yarışma
canlı müzik
izdivac
en güzel evlilik
hersey burada
sesliparti
seslisohbet odalari
Sesli adresi
Sesli Chat
SesliChat Siteleri
Sesli Chat sitesi
SesliChat sitesi
SesliSohbet
Sesli Sohbet
Sesli Sohbet Sitesi
SesliSohbet Sitesi
SesliSohbet Siteleri
Muhabbet Sitesi
kamerali chat
Görüntülü Sohbet
Hasret gülleri
Çet sitesi
SesliSohbet
Sesli Sohbet
Canli sohbet
Turkce sohbet
Kurtce Sohbet
Kurtce Chat
Kurtce Muhabbet
Kurtce Sohbet
Kurdish Chat
SesliChat
Sesli Chat
SesliSanal
Guncel Haber
sohbet Sitesi
Chat sitesi..

mili said...

I can't believe it.
abercrombie outlet
You can have a look at it.
abercrombie fitch outlet
The quality is so good
nike shoes wholesale
wholesale jordan shoes
Young and creative style
wholesale clothing
wholesale nike shoes
wholesale jordans
Young and creative style
china wholesale
There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 6

songsong_like said...

NewStreetFashion
Ed Hardy
stylish design
Ed Hardy Wholesale
fashion excellent quality
wholesale Ed Hardy
ED Hardy clothing bring you a super surprise!
ed hardy wholesale clothing
The quality is so good
christian audigier
if you really want it
jordan 8
jordan 9
jordan 10

daiyanren said...

coats & jackets
If one knows where to, the world will give way.
north face jackets
moncler
World-class brands
moncler jackets
The top fabric produced in France is 100%
duvetica
Italy's top outdoor brands
peuterey
Good quality and function, more accord with fashionable design
spyder jackets
High-grade, innovation, the trend of the brand
Columbia Sportswear
The quality is so good
quiksilver jackets
Young and creative style
ski jacket


You can have a look at it.
jordan shoes
Wow.
newest jordans
jordan 7
Wonderful!
air yeezy
jordan true flight
If you like,you can contact us.
jordan 3
jordan 4
We offer different styles.
jordan 1
jordan 2
Thanks.
jordan 5
jordan ajf shoes
There are cheap shoes to choose
nike footwear
jordan flight 45
Good quality with low price.
air jordan 2010
Air Jordan 2009
Enjoy it!
jumpman
nike trainers

mili said...

I can't believe it.
abercrombie outlet
You can have a look at it.
abercrombie fitch outlet
The quality is so good
nike shoes wholesale
wholesale jordan shoes
Young and creative style
wholesale clothing
wholesale nike shoes
wholesale jordans
Young and creative style
china wholesale
There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 6
jordan 28

jane simi's blog said...

Thanks very much for your suggestion.I can get a lot of information from you article.And there is also so much nice jackets for all of you,i hope you like them.
moncler
moncler jacken
moncler jackets
moncler men
moncler coats
moncler women
Thanks for you attention.

songsong_like said...

NewStreetFashion
Ed Hardy
stylish design
Ed Hardy Wholesale
fashion excellent quality
wholesale Ed Hardy
ED Hardy clothing bring you a super surprise!
ed hardy wholesale clothing
The quality is so good
christian audigier

mili said...

abercrombie and fitch
abercrombie & fitch
Abercrombie and fitch outlet
nike shoes wholesale
wholesale clothing
china wholesale

songsong_like said...

Young and creative style.
abercrombie and fitch
abercrombie & fitch
You can have a look at it.
Abercrombie and fitch outlet
ED Hardy clothing bring you a super surprise!
ed hardy wholesale clothing
If you really want it.
nike outlet

seldamuratim said...

Really trustworthy blog. Please keep updating with great posts like this one. I have booked marked your site and am about to email it to a few friends of mine that I know would enjoy reading..

sesli sohbet
seslisohbet
sesli chat
seslichat
sesli sohbet sitesi
sesli chat sitesi
sesli sohpet
kamerali sohbet
kamerali chat
webcam sohbet

aai33 said...

coats & jackets
leather jacket
ski jacket
the north face
moncler
spyder
spyder ski wear
spyder jackets
coach outlet
coach handbag
coach bag
goose jacket
Peak Performance
belstaff jacket
goose jacket
Peak Performance
belstaff jacket

jane simi's blog said...

Thanks very much for your suggestion.I can get a lot of information from you article.And there is also so much nice jackets for all of you,i hope you like them.
moncler
moncler jacken
moncler jackets
moncler men
moncler coats
moncler women
Thanks for you attention.

jacket said...

You can have a look at it.
coats & jackets
jordan shoes
The quality is so good.
abercrombie and fitch
abercrombie & fitch
Abercrombie and fitch outle

combattery84 said...

Laptop Battery
acer Laptop Battery
apple Laptop Battery
asus Laptop Battery
compaq Laptop Battery
Dell Laptop Battery
fujitsu Laptop Battery
gateway Laptop Battery
hp Laptop Battery
ibm Laptop Battery
sony Laptop Battery
toshiba Laptop Battery
APPLE M8403 battery
APPLE A1078 Battery
APPLE A1079 battery
APPLE A1175 battery 1
APPLE a1185 battery
APPLE A1189 battery
Acer aspire 5920 battery
Acer btp-arj1 battery
Acer LC.BTP01.013 battery
Acer ASPIRE 1300 battery
Acer ASPIRE 1310 battery
Acer Aspire 1410 battery
Acer ASPIRE 1680 battery
ACER BTP-63D1 battery
ACER BTP-43D1 battery
Acer lc.btp05.001 battery
Acer aspire 3000 battery
Acer Travelmate 4000 battery
ACER aspire 5560 battery
ACER BATBL50L6 battery
ACER TravelMate 240 Battery
ACER BT.00803.004 Battery

combattery84 said...

ACER Travelmate 4002lmi battery
Acer travelmate 800 battery
Acer aspire 3613wlmi battery
Travelmate 2414wlmi battery
Acer batcl50l battery
Acer Travelmate 2300 battery
ACER aspire 3610 battery
ACER travelmate 4600 battery
Dell Latitude D800 battery
Dell Inspiron 600m battery
Dell Inspiron 8100 Battery
Dell Y9943 battery
Dell Inspiron 1521 battery
Dell Inspiron 510m battery
Dell Latitude D500 battery
Dell Latitude D520 battery
Dell GD761 battery
Dell NF343 battery
Dell D5318 battery
Dell G5260 battery
Dell Inspiron 9200 battery
Dell Latitude C500 battery
Dell HD438 Battery
Dell GK479 battery
Dell PC764 battery
Dell KD476 Battery
Dell Inspiron 1150 battery

DiSCo said...

Really trustworthy blog. Please keep updating with great posts like this one. I have booked marked your site and am about to email it

to a few friends of mine that I know would enjoy reading..
seslisohbet
seslichat
sesli sohbet
sesli chat
sesli
sesli site
görünlütü sohbet
görüntülü chat
kameralı sohbet
kameralı chat
sesli sohbet siteleri
sesli chat siteleri
görüntülü sohbet siteleri
görüntülü chat siteleri
kameralı sohbet siteleri
canlı sohbet
sesli muhabbet
görüntülü muhabbet
kameralı muhabbet
seslidunya
seslisehir
sesli sex

Sesli Chat said...

Really trustworthy blog. Please keep updating with great posts like this one. I have booked marked your site and am about to email it

to a few friends of mine that I know would enjoy reading..
seslisohbet
seslichat
sesli sohbet
sesli chat
sesli
sesli site
görünlütü sohbet
görüntülü chat
kameralı sohbet
kameralı chat
sesli sohbet siteleri
sesli chat siteleri
sesli muhabbet siteleri
görüntülü sohbet siteleri
görüntülü chat siteleri
görüntülü muhabbet siteleri
kameralı sohbet siteleri
kameralı chat siteleri
kameralı muhabbet siteleri
canlı sohbet
sesli muhabbet
görüntülü muhabbet
kameralı muhabbet
birsesver
birses
seslidunya
seslisehir
sesli sex

trustme said...

This is really a nice blog, I appreciate you for telling us so nice things, thank you!By the way, if you like nike tn you can come here to choose! We have a lot of
nike tn,tn chaussures,
nike tn chaussures
nike tn requin chaussures,nike air max tn chaussures.
nike homme chaussures,
nike femme chaususres,
nike enfant chaussres,
MBT France
vibram
If you want to find the shoes according to the sorts, then here you can have the informations,
we classied the shoes in nike presto,
nike air max,
nike air rift ninja,
tn requin,tn pas cher
vibram fivefingers,
converse.
At the same time, the vibram also offer you in our store.
You also can choose the most fashionable sunglasses here, it really can make you different from other people. We have
sunglasses,designer sunglasses,
wholesale sunglasses,sunglasses discount in USA.
They includ men's sunglasses,women's sunglasses.
So many fashion brands are for you,like Dior Sunglasses,
Emporio Armani Sunglasses,
Fendi Sunglasses,
Giorgio Armani Sunglasses,
Gucci Sunglasses,
LV Sunglasses and so on.